语言学

语言学
文本预览:

) What is language? (2) How does language work? 2) Various questions related to language (1) What do all languages have in common? (2) What range of variation is found among languages? (3) What makes language change? (4) To what extent are social class differences reflected in language? (5) How does a child acquire his mother tongue? (6) Why do people use different 12 (Dai et expressions to refer to the same thing? al. 1)

3. How do you interpret the definition “Linguistics is the scientific study of language”?

1) A branch of science which takes language as its object of investigation. 2) Language: language in general 3) Scientific study: data generalizations

hypothesis+more facts theories

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(Dai et al. 1-2)

4. What is the difference between “language” and “a language”?

1) Language here refers to “the general human capacity for verbal communication” (Graddol 4.16), that is, it does not mean one particular language of a certain society but ‘the languages of all human societies . the societies’. 2) A language refers to a system of “specific forms of language” (Graddol 4.17).

(Dai et al. 1)

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5. What is the relationship between hypothesis and theory?

1) A theory is simply a set of interrelated hypotheses that are supported by empirical evidence. [Krashen 1987: 33c] 2) Hypothesis = Unverified theory 3) Theory = Verified hypothesis

(Dai et al. 1)

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The scope of linguistics

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What is the difference between branches of linguistics and interdisciplinary branches of linguistic study?

Factors

Interdisciplinary branches Areas of The core of linguistics: The overlapping areas study Different layers and between language and facets of language other social phenomena Phonetics Sociolinguistics Phonology Psycholinguistics Morphology Applied linguistics Branches Syntax Educational linguistics Semantics Corpus linguistics Pragmatics computational 17 linguistics

General linguistics

1) The core of linguistics (microlinguistics)

Phonetics----speech sound Phonology----sound patterns of languages Morphology----the form of words Syntax----the rules governing the combination of words into sentence. Semantics----the meaning of language Pragmatics---- (when the meaning of language is conducted in the context of language use)

2)Interdisciplinary branches (macrolinguistics)

Applied linguistics----linguistics and language teaching Sociolinguistics---- social factors (e.g. class, education) affect language use Psycholinguistics----linguistic behavior and psychological process Stylistics----linguistic and literature Anthropological linguistics Neurolinguistics Computational linguistics (e.g. machine translation)

The scope of linguistics

target language: general linguistics: basic concept, general nature of language specific linguistics: take a specific language as its research field time: diachronic linguistic (历时语言学) synchronic linguistic(共时语言学)(at a certain period of time) disciplinary: intra-

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