Lexical & Semantic Change
2008 CLASS 2
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Addition of new words Lexical change
1.Compounds 2.Coinage 3.Clipped words 4. Blending 5.Acronyms 6. BackBackformations 7.Funcitonal shift 8.Borrowing
Lexical &semanti c change
Loss of words
Semantic broadening Semantic narrowing Semantic shift
7.4.1Addition of new words (1). Compounds
Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word. Examples: Home + work Pick + pocket
(2) Coinage 创新词
Definition:A new word can be coined outright to fit some purpose,mostly for new things and objects.
Brands of camera:Kodak,SONY,NIKON Car brands:Ford,BMW,Benz,Toyota
(3) Clipped words 省略词
Definition: the abbreviation of longer words or phrases.
Examples: Facsimile Influenza Gasoline Advertisement Omnibus fax flu Gas Ad. Bus
Definition:A blend is a word formed by combining parts of other words. Examples: Motor + hotel Motel Breakfast + lunch Brunch Wireless + Fidelity Wi-Fi Smoke+fog smog
Definition: words derived from the initials of several words.
Examples: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS National basketball Association NBA Unidentified Flying Object UFO
Definition:New words may be coined frow already existing words by “subtracting” an affix thought to be part of the old word.
Examples: Peddler Enthusiasm Laser lase peddle enthuse
(7)Functional shift 功能性变化
Definition:Words may shift from one part of speech to another without the addition of affixes,which is also called conversion.
Definition: When different cultures come into contact, words are often “borrowed” from one language to anoher. The loan word may label a new concept, or it may replace or become a synonym of a native word.
Greek: electricity, atom, obstetrics产科学 Latin: cancer, tumor French: mortgage抵押 entail, 抵押, 抵押 Chinese: wok锅（源自广东话）, kung-fu 锅 源自广东话） Japanese: Jodo日本佛教的净土宗 karate空手道 日本佛教的净土宗, 日本佛教的净土宗 空手道 In the realm of food and cooking, English has borrowed many words from French. In the realm of music, English has borrowed many words from Italian
7.4.2 Loss of words
Words can be lost from a language as time goes by. One of the loss of lexical items is the discontinuation of the object they name. Examples: The Old English word wer wer,means “man”, now is not used in modern English. The Old English word “rice” means “kingdom”, has been lost in the modern language.
7.4.3 Semantic changes
Over the time many words remain in use, but their meanings have changed.This section will present mainly three processes of semantic change